This is a continuation from part 1, so you might want to read that first in order to get a general idea of what’s going on. That is of course you are a somewhat experienced Linux user.
In this part of the series I will be discussing the following directories/partitions: /bin /boot /dev /etc /home.
I will start by discussing the partition that is most familiar to most new users, /home. First you should know that Linux, unlike Windows, was originally designed to be a multi-user system. Thus in the home directory you will find a set of directories, one for each user. Every user (along with the system administrator) can access their directory by entering
cd /home/[user name]. Each user’s home directory contains their own personal files in addition to their personal settings for programs.
This directory contains programs that are able to be used by the system(Linux), the administrator and non-privileged users. Examples of such programs would include
rm, and other such commands/programs. In addition to programs it also contains the shells, like bash, csh, sh, and so on. Just as a side note, you should be aware that there is also a /usr/bin which also contains programs that the system, administrator, and non-privileged users can use. However, unlike those in /bin, these programs are not essential-meaning that you can do without them and not have any real problems. Some programs that are located in my /usr/bin are:
acroread. Sure it would be a pain not having these programs, but the system would still run perfectly fine.
All of the system startup files and the kernel (
vmlinuz) are located in this directory (also I would suggest reading the Wikipedia article on System.map, which is also stored in this directory). On Ubuntu, this is also where Grub (GRand Unified Boot loader) stored. For those of you that are dual-booting here is something that might interest you. When you start up your system you will normally see a list asking you which OS you want to enter. This list normally contains the various Linux kernels along with Windows (or whatever OS you have on your computer). If you would like to change the order these elements are presented along with other properties here is what you need to do.
cd /boot/grub then
sudo gedit menu.lst (actually you can use whatever text editor you desire) The file is pretty well documented so editing it is pretty straight forward.
All computers have hardware, and this is where the information on all your hardware is stored. Once again let me reiterate that EVERYTHING is a file (or directory but I don’t distinguish between them in this case). If you list all of the files here, you should find sda, sda1, sda2… which represent the partitions of you master drive (instead of sda you might have hda depending on your drive type). Also you might see a files /dev/cdrom and /dev/fd or (/dev/fd0). These represent your CDROM and floppy drive (if you have them that is, because really who still has a floppy drive?). Here is something “cool” that you should all try (don’t worry it won’t damage your computer. I have done it on mine if that makes you feel any better). The file /dev/dsp represents your speakers (or whatever sound output device you have). So anything written to this file will be redirected to your speakers and played for you to hear. Thus if you run
cat ~/funfile.java > /dev/dsp you will hear what funfile.java “sounds like”, assuming that you have a file called funfile.java in your home directory. Pretty cool hu?
Finally, I will slightly discuss the /etc directory. One overview that I read, described this directory as the Linux equivalent to the Control Panel in Windows. Basically most of the important configuration files are located here. There are a lot of important files here that have to do with system start up (one being /etc/rc.d which contains the startup scripts for the system). It is always a good idea to back up your system, but this file more than any other I would say should really be backed up. Doing so would save you a lot of headache later when you have to reconfigure your settings, because you reinstalled your system or somehow managed to lose your installation.
Well that’s all there is for part 2. Hope you will stick around for part 3.